What is the role of maxillofacial trauma in head injury and does the presence of faciomaxillary fractures protect the brain from trauma?
Aim: To document the pattern of maxillofacial trauma and head injury in patients with craniofacial injuries and to identify whether craniofacial fracture patterns predispose patients with maxillofacial fractures to different types of intracranial haemorrhages.
Materials and methods: Patients with Maxillofacial trauma treated in the Dept. of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Govt. Dental College, Kottayam for a period of 6 months, November 2013 – April 2014 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups, group a patients with maxillofacial fractures, group B patients with head injury and group C combined craniofacial fractures. The association between facial bone fracture and head injury pattern evaluated using Chi-Square test.
Results: There were total 130 patients of which 119 (91.5%) were males and 11 (8.5%) were females. Group A had 53 patients, Group B had 38 patients and Group C had 39 patients. Isolated facial bone fractures showed a higher prevalence of nasal bone (22%) fracture followed by zygomatic complex fracture (20%). The most common intracranial haemorrhage in the present study was SDH. Lefort III fracture of maxilla is mostly associated with intracranial haemorrhage.
Conclusion: Patients with Lefort III fractures and zygomatic complex fractures should thus be thoroughly evaluated for associated head injury.