Chronic periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss in the adult population. The bacteria that are involved in periodontitis accumulate in the sub-gingival plaque that comprises predominantly of Gram-negative strict anaerobic rods. Clinical interests in these organisms are linked to the therapeutic problems usually encountered in treating mixed orodental infections.
Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to look at the frequency of strict anaerobic bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects without periodontal destruction. Lack of data regarding from this geographical area prompted us to carry out this study.
Material and Methods: Study comprises of 40 patients. 20 apparently healthy subjects without clinical signs and symptoms of Periodontitis constituted the control group and 20 patients with Chronic Periodontitis comprise of study group Sub gingival plaque Samples were collected into sterile test tubes containing 2 ml of transport media that is Robertson cooked meat (RCM) broth Samples were processed from RCM Broth, for both aerobes and anaerobes bacteria.
Results: Chronic periodontitis is polymicrobial in nature. Anaerobes outnumber the aerobic bacteria by 3-4 folds. Anaerobe isolation was 78.33% in Chronic Periodontitis and 48.33% in healthy subjects, which shows increased rate of isolation of anaerobe has strong association with Chronic Periodontitis. Obligate Gram negative anaerobes (70.21%) were predominantly isolated than the gram positive (14.89%) in patients suffering from Chronic Periodontitis. Most common isolate was Prevotella spp. (Chronic Periodontitis= 60%, Healthy= 30%) followed by Fusobacterium sp. (Chronic Periodontitis= 50%, Healthy= 15%), Porphyromonas sp. (Chronic Periodontitis= 30%, Healthy= 10%) and Bacteroides sp. (Chronic Periodontitis= 25%, Healthy= 10%).
Conclusion: Significant decrease in aerobic-anaerobic ratio suggesting that anaerobes play a major role in orodental infections and their proportion is markedly increased in Chronic Periodontitis with respect to healthy subjects. Cultural methods are still economical and gold standard. Diversity of anaerobic bacteria in Chronic Periodontitis should be considered in the treatment strategy of the patients.