Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of fasting blood glucose level (FBG) and fasting salivary glucose level (FSG) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Material and methods: A study was conducted in 40 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria. Patients were categorized into 2 groups -20 patients with diabetes mellitus (Group A) and 20 healthy non-diabetic patients (Group B). The fasting blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients. These samples were estimated using the glucose oxidase‑peroxidase method.
Results: A statistically significant difference (p=0.0001*) was found between the fasting blood glucose level between the 2 groups with mean FBG level in group A (181.55±12.67) and fasting blood glucose level among group B was 73.59±7.56. The mean FSG was higher in diabetic group (13.43± 3.2) than in non-diabetic group (0.72±0.08). A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting salivary glucose and fasting blood glucose in both the groups.
Conclusion: In this study, an attempt has been made to diagnose diabetes mellitus by estimating the salivary glucose level in comparison with serum blood glucose level. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients.