Leptin, an adipocytokine with pro-inflammatory properties has shown a fundamental role in the association of obesity and periodontitis with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known regarding the potential association between leptin and periodontitis with obesity parameters like Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat Mass (BFM) and lipid profile (LP). Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate GCF and serum levels of leptin and compare with obesity parameters in periodontal health and disease to get a clear picture of periodontal-systemic health relationship in terms of leptin.
Methods: Two hundred and eight subjects with both gender in the age range of 30-39 years were divided into Periodontally Healthy (PH) and Moderate to severe Periodontitis (MP) groups based on clinical parameters. The groups were subcategorised based on BMI, BFM and LP into Normal Weight (NW), Over Weight (OW), Obese Weight (Ob), Average Fat Mass (AFM), Obese Fat Mass (OFM), Normolipidemic (NL) and Hyperlipidemic (HL). GCF and serum levels of leptin were evaluated using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA).
Results: In serum, leptin levels were higher in the MP compared to PH and GCF leptin levels were higher in PH and lower in the MP group (p<0.05). The GCF leptin in PH group had a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.3), BFM (r=0.4) and LP (r=0.1) and no significant difference was observed in the MP group whereas the serum leptin showed a positive correlation only with BFM (r=0.6) and LP (r=0.2) in both MP and PH groups, respectively.
Conclusion: In obese and non-obese individuals, there was an inverse relationship in GCF leptin levels in MP and PH groups. GCF leptin was correlated with BFM & LP in periodontal health whereas serum leptin was correlated with BFM & LP in both periodontal health and disease.