In newborns, some benign transient conditions of the oral mucosa are often observed.
Objective: To evaluate the literature on the most common alterations found in the oral cavity of newborns such as inclusion cysts, natal and neonatal teeth, congenital epulis and hemangioma.
Methodology: Electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane) were used using the keywords "inclusion cyst", "natal and neonatal tooth", "congenital épulis", "hemangioma".
Results: The most common alterations are inclusion cysts divided into Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts, which present as white, multiple nodules of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges and the region of the mid-palate, they do not receive treatment since they are usually transient. Natal teeth present in the mouth at birth and neonatal teeth before 30 days of life, with unknown etiology, the treatment is to polish sharp edges to avoid Riga-Fede ulcer, congenital epulis is a mass that arises from the gum and is composed of polygonal cells. Hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor of white tissues, reddish to pinkish color, rapid growth, clinical diagnosis and MRI or CT scan, transient or surgical excision can be performed for complications.
Conclusions: These alterations are benign. Our job as pediatric dentists is to reassure parents about the uneasiness they may cause, a correct diagnosis will be the key to provide adequate care.