Orthodontic appliances may be associated with a worsening of preexisting periodontal diseases caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Objective: To analyze the literature on the characteristics of A. actinomycetemcomitans and its relationship with orthodontics, particularly epidemiology, oral manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatments.
Methodology: Using the keywords “A. actinomycetemcomitans”, “orthodontics”, “oral manifestations”, “treatment” and “epidemiology”, the main public databases were searched, with emphasis on the last 5 years. It was evaluated with the PRISMA and AMSTAR-2 guidelines.
Results: Orthodontic treatment increase the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Preexisting aggressive periodontitis is a great challenge to clinicians when providing orthodontic treatment due to A. actinomycetemcomitans. PCR is the technique of choice as a diagnostic method that is currently used most frequently in research centers. The removal of orthodontic appliances has shown a significant reduction in dentobacterial plaque, as well as proper oral hygiene and, if necessary, the use of alternative treatments such as moxifloxacin and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.
Conclusions: Correct oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment is essential to reduce the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, thus diminishing cariogenic risk as well as a worsening of periodontal diseases.