Syphilis is a systemic infection of sexual, blood transfusion or transplacental transmission caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum
Objective: To analyze the literature on the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical and oral manifestations and treatment of Treponema pallidum.
Methodology: A literature review was carried out in the PubMed database with the words "Treponema pallidum", together with "epidemiology", "diagnosis", "clinical manifestations", "oral manifestations" and "treatment".
Results: It is estimated that each year there are 12 million new cases of syphilis worldwide and more than 90% are from developing countries. Direct detection and serological tests are the available options for identification. Infectious ulceration is the sign of primary disease, while secondary disease is characterized by multisystem involvement. Late syphilis involves neurosyphilis, cardiovascular syphilis and gummatous syphilis, which may coexist. The oral manifestation presents as one or more ulcers depending on the stage. The main treatment for syphilis is penicillin, although its effectiveness will depend on the stage of the disease.
Conclusions: Due to its increasing incidence, it is of great relevance that the dentist is familiar with the clinical appearance, especially oral, of this pathology for early diagnosis and treatment.