Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) leads to pathological changes that lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients.
Objective: To analyze the literature on sleep disordered breathing,its etiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms and treatment in children.
Methodology: Articles on the subject published through the PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Academic databases were analyzed, with an emphasis on the last 5 years. It was carried out with the words "Sleep-Disordered Breathing", "children" "etiology" "diagnosis" "symptoms" "treatment".
Results: The etiology of SDB is associated in children with developmental anomalies, craniofacial malformations, syndromes, these lead to airway narrowing that triggers adenotonsillar hypertrophy and shortness of breath. Polysomnography is found as an effective and most used diagnostic test, however in very young children or with severe diseases additional studies are needed with a pediatric otolaryngologist, other tests are pulse oximetry or questionnaires. There are nighttime symptoms such as shortness of breath, night sweats, sleep irregularities and snoring, those present during the day are summarized as lack of performance, poor performance, moodiness, hyperactivity. Together they result in signs of malocclusion and altered facial development. Tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy is the most effective treatment in patients with SDB, this is complemented with orthodontic treatment and functional appliances improve the quality of life of patients.
Conclusion: It is of great importance to diagnose and treatment SDB because it causes alterations in the development of facial growth and in the quality of life of pediatric patients.