Introduction: Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent childhood diseases worldwide. Objective: To analyze the literature on factors associated with susceptibility to caries, such as dietary factors, factors related to breastfeeding, factors related to hygiene, factors related to oral microflora, sociodemographic factors.
Methodology: Current literature review carried out using Pubmed and SCOPUS, with emphasis on the last 5 years". The search was performed using Boolean logical operators, with the keywords of: "risk factors of caries"," diet AND caries", "caries AND hygiene", "caries AND socioeconomic", "caries AND bacteria", "caries AND breastfeeding".
Results: There are factors associated with susceptibility to caries such as dietary factors due to high frequency of sugar intake, factors related to breastfeeding due to intake after 12 months, factors related to hygiene due to poor hygiene, factors related to oral microflora as they break its homeostasis and socio-demographic factors such as low socioeconomic level.
Conclusion: The oral cavity contains bacteria which can break the homeostasis producing demineralization of the hydroxyapatite crystals of the teeth giving rise to dental caries. Several factors such as breastfeeding after 12 months of age, low socioeconomic level, deficient oral hygiene, frequent ingestion of sugars is strongly linked to dental caries.