The dilution of the quantity or quality of saliva is associated with complications that increase suffering and lead to many diseases.
Objective: To analyze the literature on xerostomia, as well as its etiology, diagnosis, prevalence, and treatment.
Methodology: A compilation of articles published in the last 5 years was carried out using the PubMed electronic database. Abstracts and full texts that included information on cracked tooth syndrome: “xerostomia”, “etiology”, “diagnosis”, “prevalence” and “treatment” were identified.
Results: Knowing the etiology allows the dentist to detect it in time, thus avoiding the propagation of cracks and complications associated with it. Early diagnosis can be a simple restoration, if it progresses, root canal treatment and restoration are often necessary for cusp coverage. The number of cases has increased due to the little information on early diagnosis. The affected tooth’s treatment and prognosis are generally difficult to determine. It depends more on the location, extension, and magnitude of the damage caused by the fissure when diagnosed and by the time of treatment.
Conclusions: Xerostomia is of multifactorial and irreversible origin, among the factors that can cause it are the use of medications, radiotherapy, Sjögren's syndrome, diabetes, depression, anemia, bulimia, genetic disorders, alcoholism, smokers, and drug addicts. Diagnostic methods include questionnaires, gum tests, and computed tomography. Prevalent in adults and women. The use of salivary substitutes is the most frequent.