Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen present worldwide that produces a large number of toxic molecules, has a 47.5% mortality rate in patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but its prevalence and its contribution to infections in the oral cavity and in the orthodontic area have not been thoroughly investigated.
Objective: To analyze the current literature on the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in relation to orthodontics, as well as its prevalence, virulence, biofilm and treatment.
Methodology: An electronic search was carried out in the databases PubMed, Google scholar and SCOPUS, compiling articles on Staphylococcus aureus published in the last 5 years; the following keywords were used for the search: "Staphylococcus aureus", "prevalence", "virulence", "biofilm", "treatment", "systemic", "oral", "dental", "orthodontics", among others.
Results: A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus of 90.9% was found on the surface of removable orthodontic appliances. The common virulence factor presents in systemic, oral cavity and proposed orthodontic-related infections is enterotoxins. Adhesion and biofilm formation on the arch wires can be a source of Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The use of 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse is recommended before performing any treatment in oral cavity.
Conclusions: It is of utmost importance to inform patients undergoing orthodontic treatment of the risks that can occur if daily removal of the oral micro biota and cleaning of removable appliances before placing them in the mouth is not carried out.